Key Geographical Information
Adjumani district is located in the north-western region of Uganda, between latitudes 31o 24” and 32o 4” east of Greenwich line; and longitudes 2o 53” and 3o 37” north of the Equator. The district lies on the eastern bank of the Albert Nile, which is its common border with Moyo District. It borders the districts of Amuru in the south and east, Arua and Yumbe in the west,and Moyo in the North. Adjumani is one of the districts that form Uganda’s common border with the Republic of South Sudan in the northeast.
The total land area of the district is 3128 Sq.Kms, of which 46.8 Sq.Kms is covered by water. The area occupied by forest is estimated at 37.44 Sq.Kms. Of the 1455 Sq.Kms of arable land, only 120.8 Sq. Kms is under cultivation.Arable land 1,455 46.52, Tropical forests 37.44 1.28, Wetlands 46.80 1.50, Savannah woodlands 1,588.76 50.70.
Sub-county land area (Sq. Kms): Adropi and Pachara 362.1, ATC 16.6, Ciforo and Ukusijoni 1025.6, Pakele 532.1, Dzaipi and Arinyapi 429.1, Ofua and Itirikwa 763.1.
c)Topography and Vegetation
Adjumani District lies at an approximate altitude ranging from 900 to 1500 metres above sea level. It is principally gentle undulating land merging into rock outcrops. The southern part of the district, especially the area occupied by Ciforo Sub-county comprises of highlands dropping into broad flat-bottomed valleys while the north stands at a low slope gradient.
The district is mainly underlain by a complex formation consisting of highly weathered and exposed hard-core rocks, quartzite sandstone, and clay. Hard-core rock and sand are used in construction work; murram is mined and used for road works while clay is for pottery and brick industry.
Open water bodies comprise 2.5% of total land area with River Nile (Albert Nile) being the major feature of the district. Other prominent rivers include Itirikwa, Esia, Ayugi, Tete, Adidi and Zoka. In Adropi sub-county there are prominent seasonal streams like Assisi, Adropi, Robidire, Oliji, Ariwa, Minia, Surumu, Ura eyi that drain into river Nile. The district is also endowed with a hot spring, located at Amuru in Pakele sub-county.
Adjumani is endowed with considerable vegetation cover. Permanent wetlands with a variety of vegetation particularly papyrus occupy the banks of River Nile (Albert Nile). Seasonal swamps also occupy a sizeable area of the district. The Arawa highlands and the equatorial forest of Zoka, in Ofua sub-county, dominate the southern part of the district. Other areas are predominantly savannah woodland and grassland with grasses ranging from 0.5-2.0 meters high.
d)Geology and Hydrology
No known hydro-geological study has been carried out in the district. Nevertheless, the area is mainly underlain by a complex formation consisting of highly weathered and exposed hard-core rocks, quartzite sandstones, and clay gneiss. Hard-core rock and sand are used in construction work; murram is mined and used for road works while clay is for pottery and brick industry.
e)Ground Water Potential
The main surface water resource in Adjumani district is the river Nile, which forms a natural boundary of the district on the southwest, west and north. The nearest distance from Adjumani town to the river is about 20 km.Other surface water resources are permanent streams such as Esia and Itirikwa (in Ciforo), Tete and Ayugi (in Dzaipi), which drain in the Nile. There are also seasonal streams, which flood during the rainy season but dry out during the peak of the dry season (January-March).The groundwater resource is potentially good, particularly for well development. However, in some areas it is very difficult to drill boreholes, e.g. Itoasi village and Ibibiaworo village in Dzaipi and Pakele sub counties respectively.
Adjumani soils were formed as a result of geological and weathering processes. They are mainly hydromorphic soils characterised by undifferentiated river alluvium dominated by grey and yellow sandy clays represented by the Mulembo series of medium to high productivity. Although all soils in the district are generally fertile, Ofua sub-county has the richest soils.
The climate of Adjumani District is tropical in nature with moderate rainfall and temperature. The rainfall pattern is bimodal with annual rainfall varying between 750 mm to 1500 mm. The rainfall seasons fall between April to June and August to November, with peak rainfall usually experienced in May. Dry conditions are experienced from December to March. However, over the past five years parts of the district have experienced unusually long dry spells with low and unpredictable yearly rainfall. This has widely been attributed to cycles in climatic conditions that have also affected the River Nile water level. The most affected areas are the sub-counties of Adropi, Ciforo and Dzaipi. Ofua and Pakele are wetter and cooler.
Temperature: The annual mean temperature ranges from 190C to 360C.
Humidity: The area has humidity levels of over 80% in most months, which reduces to below 50% during the dry season afternoons especially from December to February.